Full-Text PDF:. The objective of this study was to assess the major welfare problems in working donkeys in Hosaena district, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia.
A total of male and 76 female working donkeys were randomly selected using a cross-sectional study from November to April Overall, Regarding wound on the skin, a higher proportion Besides, the welfare problem was observed in Out of the interviewed, the majority of animal owners The assessment showed that working donkeys in the present study area were experiencing multiple welfare problems. Accordingly, awareness creation through mass education, training and extension service should be promoted in the study area in order to ensure better donkey welfare and productivity.
Objective : This study aimed to conduct an evaluation of music therapy clinical trials worldwide, to understand what trials have been conducted and to show the chronological changes. Additionally, we sought to clarify issues related to providing clinical trial registration information. Twenty-five clinical trials were actively recruiting.
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Sixteen of the 25 trials were registered in the United States at ClinicalTrials. Seven trials were conducted in other countries such as Spain, Taiwan, and China. Conclusion : A search for music therapy clinical trials retrieved trials from the ICTRP, and the number of clinical trial registrations has increased yearly.
It is important to enlighten researchers and pharmaceutical companies on the proper management of the quality of such clinical trial information, as this is an important issue.
Mechanisms by which some plants with antihyperglycemic effects reduce postprandial hyperglycemiaare not fully elucidated. Cancer immunotherapy has evolved enormously in the recent years with better understanding of immune reactions, immune microenvironment and immunosurveillance.
Breast cancer is characterized by large heterogeneity, a fact which rather complicated the development and the approval of novel therapeutic options in comparison to the majority of other solid tumors since each subtype has required a unique scientific approach and different targets and goals. Triple negative breast cancer TNBC is considered the most aggressive of the breast cancer subtypes with limited treatment options and worse outcome compared to others.
This article summarizes some of the early clinical studies and the recently presented phase III clinical study of immunotherapy checkpoint inhibitors in this difficult setting.
In most African countries, the elderly face challenges that affect their health and wellbeing and are more pronounced because of the systemic factors of inadequate health care, food insecurity and the general care.
Increasing population of the elderly persons in Uganda is raising concern than ever before. The purpose of this paper to ascertain care available to the rural elderly persons and their role as carers for their grandchildren and implications on their wellbeing. This was a qualitative study conducted among the rural elderly aged 60 years and above in eight purposively selected district that included Lira, Nebbi, Kampala, Luwero, Pallisa, Jinja, Mbarara, and Ntungamo.
The study sample consisted of elderly person from whom in-depth interviews were conducted. Data was analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis. Rural elderly in Uganda face a lot of constraints that include access to healthcare and information, poor economic status, food insecurity and poor nutrition, and poor accommodation and housing conditions. Two broader themes emerged inductively from the analysis that include care available for the rural elderly and providing care to grandchildren.
These themes generated several subthemes. Taking care of grandchildren crippled the elderly and reduced the economic benefits. That said some rural elderly were happy and felt fulfilled to care of the grandchildren despite the lack of resources. The rural elderly in Uganda are living in doleful conditions with limited care and support. They need care but are the providers of care to the grandchildren.The research was conducted in Kedida Gamelo woreda and it was purposively selected.
This selection was based on the following reasons. The first reason was that, it is the seat of the zonal administration, so it would be easy to consult the zonal culture and tourism department frequently. Similarly, as casual visit of the research team to the study area indicate that resourceful informants can easily be found in the selected woreda. Kedida Gamella woreda has 17 rural kebeles. Bezenabenara, one of them is selected as the setting of the study because it is believed that the kebele is easily accessible from Durame town, which is the seat of the zonal administration.
To achieve this goal, an attempt was made to collect the data in the study area by using different mechanisms. In terms of sample size, the researchers have done interviews with 10 key informants, i.
Each FGD has eight 8 discussants classified based on sex. The results obtained from the study suggest that Conflicts in Kambata, as in anywhere else, may vary from trivial interpersonal disagreements to a serious dispute which might eventually lead to homicide.
The most common conflict issues in Kambata are grazing land, water, farmland and borderland. There are different traditional institutions to solve the conflicts among Kembata societies. These are Reeda, Gudagambela tradition. The local communities prefer customary laws than courts due to the following reasons: First customary laws are flexible; they develop as the communities go forward and provide communities with a sense of ownership contrast to formal legal systems that are perceived as alien to a considerable number of people in developing countries in general and Ethiopia in particular.
Secondary, customary law provides a fundamental and central role to maintain order in many communities. This owing to the fact that it is developed and maintained by local peoples as a result of which are suits local circumstances. In fact, the extent of the role of customary laws in maintaining order varies from community to community depending on many factors. In addition it plays an important cultural role in the lives of many people and beliefs.
Thirdly, the law itself is more immediate and meaningful to all people concerned; as it is developed and imposed by the community itself that is by their own community major role in that process, yet having the appropriate limitations that should be imposed on the recognition of customary laws. Therefore, to sum up, the local systems of conflict resolution among the Kembata are the most preferable one even though the local community have already begun to use government courts as an opinion.
DOI: There is no single definition for the term conflict. Coser, defines conflict as a struggle over values or claims to status and scarce resources, in which the aim of the conflicting parties is not only the desired values but also neutralizes, injures or eliminate their rivals.
In the other hand as to the definition availed by Montagu, conflict is a condition of disharmony in an interaction process and usually occurs as a result of clash of interest between the parties involved in some form of relationship. Clash of interest could occur because either they are perusing their incompatible goals to peruse their chosen goal. With Regard to conflict management Fortman has indicated that conflict can be managed through strategies and through institutions.
The ultimate objectives of these strategies are to handle and minimize conflict among parties who have different demands Roberchek, Almost all societies, regardless of their location in time and space, have laws for handling disputes and achieving resolution of differences.
Ethiopia is a country in which various ethnic groups live together for long period of time. As conflict is inevitable, these ethnic groups have experienced conflicts of various types at different times. Each ethnic group has its own mechanisms for solving conflicts. Kambata is specifically located in kilometers west of Hawassa. The ethnic group is mainly settled between Omo River to the west and the Billate River to the east.
The homeland of Kembata people is one of the most densely populated areas in Ethiopia. The majority of the people are farmers. Enset plant constitutes the base of their subsistence economy.Therefore, to save lives of mothers and their newborn from acquiring HIV, male partners should do their maximum endeavor regardless of any determinant factors as our results revealed its status in our study context and elsewhere at past time too.
Mother-to-child transmission is the most common mode of human immunodeficiency virus HIV transmission in children which can be vertically transmitted from HIV positive pregnant women to their unborn babies during pregnancy, labour, and delivery or through breastfeeding after delivery [ 1 — 3 ].
HIV remains a major challenge globally regardless of decades of advocacy and investment in programs to control the spread of the virus [ 45 ]. Globally, an estimated The number of newly infected children in wasin low- and middle-income countries [ 7 ].
Nearly all of these children acquired HIV through mother-to-child transmission and ninety percent of them live in Sub-Saharan Africa [ 89 ]. Consequently, maximum efforts to improve programs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission PMTCT of HIV have been focused primarily at the health facility level on defining an effective set of community interventions to increase demand and uptake of services and retention [ 10 ].
Uptake of PMTCT services by the pregnant mothers is affected both by factors related to the health system such as accessibility of voluntary counselling and testing VCT services and by individual factors such as fear of disclosure of HIV results, lack of male partner support, fear of domestic violence, rejection, and negligence [ 1511 — 14 ].
It poses a significant threat to child health and survival [ 111315 ]. Inthere were an estimatedpeople living with HIV includingchildren and the paediatric HIV population.
In the country there were mostly older children who were vertically infected in earlier years when the coverage and effectiveness of PMTCT in the country were low [ 11 ]. To halt the problem their male partners and mostly husbands should play a vital role besides mothers [ 16 ]. In Ethiopia, lack of male partner involvement in PMTCT undermined the potential benefits of antenatal HIV preventive efforts [ 16 ], thus representing a missed opportunity to effectively prevent vertical HIV transmission [ 17 ].
However, the factors associated with poor male participation are not well known in Ethiopia and need to be investigated to help the country develop reasonable strategies to address these bottlenecks. Male involvement is said to be very low in many health facilities in Ethiopia and it is one of the potential program gaps unfavourably affecting PMTCT services uptake in the country [ 18 ]. There is global consensus that the world must strive towards elimination of new HIV infections among children by to keep mothers and children living with HIV alive.
Many low- and middle-income countries have already moved significantly towards achieving these goals [ 19 ].
This can also increase the likelihood of HIV infection among the newborns [ 1720 ]. As a result, in Lemo district, there is no clear evidence that could show level of male partners involvement in the PMTCT service.
From this 73, were males and 74, were females. There were 34, women in reproductive age group from which is expected pregnancy and were under one-year children [ 21 ]. Multistage stratified sampling technique was used to select the study units.
First, all the kebeles the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopian government system below a district in the district was stratified into urban and rural kebeles.
Then 1 out of 2 urban kebeles and 10 out of 33 rural kebeles were selected randomly. The number of male partners was proportionally allocated based on the average number of male partners whose pregnant mothers were attending ANC services in previous six months before the study was conducted. Family folder in the health posts was used to identify households with eligible male partners.
Households with eligible male partners were identified and sampling frame was created based on house numbers. Finally computer generated simple random sampling method was employed to select and approach each male partner. All items had an equal weight of score 1.
Eight diploma nurses for data collection and two health officers for supervision were recruited. One day training on how to fill the questionnaire, request the consent, and assure confidentiality of information of the study participants was given to data collectors and supervisors to ensure the quality of the field operation by principal investigator. During data collection, the supervisors had supervised the data collection process in daily base and performed quality checks.
The pretest data was not included in the main data analysis. All collected data from questionnaire was checked manually before entry to software.
Then, the data was entered into a computer using EpiData version 3. The software was created based on data type and size, categories, validating permitted values and ranges, and codes to missing value.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Shimeles Ololo. This is attributed to, among other factors, none use of modern health care services by women in Ethiopia.
According to the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey, more than seven in ten mothers did not receive antenatal care at all. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore factors influencing antenatal care services utilization in Southern Ethiopia.
A multi stage sampling technique was used to select the study population in one urban and five rural kebeles. Analysis was done using SPSS for windows version However, from those who attended antenatal care service Maternal age, husband attitude, family size, maternal education, and perceived morbidity were major predictors of antenatal care service utilization. Promoting information, education and communication in the community is recommended to favorably affect the major predictors of antenatal care service utilization.
One explanation for poor health outcomes among women is the Despite progress in some countries, the global non-use of modern health service by a sizable number of maternal deaths per year estimated at proportion of women in the country 3. Millions more women importance of maternity care which includes survive but suffer from illness and disability ANC, poor access to and low utilization of such related to pregnancy and childbirth 2.
Boxe-mail:zeineabosse yahoo. Boxe- mail: mirkuzie yahoo. Based on healthy baby. Recently the WHO Technical the information from the zonal office, there were Working Group has recommended a minimum one zonal hospital, 17 health centers, 14 level of care to be four visits through out the upgrading health centers and health posts pregnancy. The first visit which is expected to which all belong to the public health system.
In order to select a fairly dealt with in early pregnancy and initiate representative sample the woreda and kebeles prophylaxis if required e. All the ten rural woredas malaria is recommended to be held by the end found in the Zone were considered during of fourth month. The second, third and fourth selection of the study sites. For logistic and cost visits are scheduled at32 and 36 weeks, reasons, three woredas namely Misha, Lemo and respectively 9.
Similarly, five kebeles 2 from Misha, 2 showed that the use of antenatal care for the most from Lemo and 1 from Anlemo were selected. Moreover, there was significant included in the study to represent the urban variation of use of antenatal care service by communities. A total of six kebeles namely; residence. Women from Addis Ababa tended to Morsuto and Hage from Misha woreda, exhibit the highest use of antenatal care Women living in rural areas were less outcome of delivery, and who are permanent likely to receive antenatal care than those women residents at least 1 year of the study area.
In in urban areas 3, Recently I started gathering information on Hadiyya Hadiyyisalanguage of Hadiya Hadiyya people and one of the languages in Ethiopia, primarily through online searches.
I was interested in online and offline Hadiyyisa vocabulary and grammar learning tools and books, contents written or produced in Hadiyyisa, et cetera. The non-availability of information got me thinking about whether the language is developing as it should, given the supposed language-based self-rule gained by the speaker community more than 20 years ago. The more I looked into the issue, the more I started to see that Hadiyyisa might actually be losing ground as a living heritage language.
Then I started looking into the phenomenon and the science of language endangerment and extinction and what research says about the process.
State of Hadiyya (Hadiyyisa) Language of Ethiopia
What I found about dying languages made me even more sensitive to the issue. I started to relate the defined stages of language endangerment and extinction to the trends I see in Hadiyyisa language.
I also learned that many other low-resourced languages in Ethiopia face similar challenges, some even worse than Hadiyyisa. In this article, using existing research and my own observations, I attempt to spotlight these worrisome weakening trends of Hadiyyisa also other similarly situated languages by implication to help the speech community appreciate how it is now at risk endangerment.
I also propose practical ways in which we can tackle the issue and revitalize our heritage language and other weakening and endangered languages in the country.
It has 1. This Wikipedia article provides an overview of Hadiyyisa. Please indulge my alarmist tone in this article, but the intent is to illicit action before it is too late. While this is about Hadiyyisa, it is not the only language in the country facing the challenge and it would be helpful to consider the context. There are even more ill-fated heritage languages in Ethiopia. Yes, being faced with facts is indeed alarming; I would prefer to be proven wrong 10, 20, 30 years from now than staying silent about my genuine concern on the subject.
It is important to mention that language endangerment and extinction is not limited to Cushitic, Nilo-Saharan and Omotic languages of Ethiopia. Hadiyyisa happens to be the language to which I am close to and can comment on more intelligently with a native linguistic and cultural familiarity. It is not formally in the endangered list for now. Whether a language is endangered or weakening, the issues involved and the prescribed solutions are the same.
To be sure the urgency level is even higher for languages that are placed in endangered languages list. Hadiyyisa too can find itself in the endangered list if its weakening trend is to continue.
It would just be a matter of time. Therefore, in this article we might as well discus the issues as if Hadiyyisa is already there — it really is just a technicality. I do not think that Hadiya no longer give their children Hadiyyisa names is tangential issue when discussing the weakening of Hadiyyisa.
The two are absolutely related, but more importantly the near extinction of Hadiya names would serve us as a warning that, if nothing is done, the language itself will have the same fate in a generation or two.
Zelealem Leyew, under the title What is in the name? The descriptive research is well designed and the findings are fascinating, but what the researcher found as a side effect was most interesting to me.
This quote captures the main part about disappearing Hadiyyisa names:. The battle to preserver Hadiya names for Hadiya kids seems to be a lost one, but should we give up? A few decades ago our parents and grandparents may have thought the same about Hadiya names disappearing, but reality now is that it has happened. It is difficult to explain why Hadiya parents are not giving their children the beautiful and always meaning-rich Hadiya names.
The country is supposedly less prejudicial about non-Amharic names and there is no forced assimilation policy although we can see the momentum that the legacy of such policies created is difficult to stop without educational, cultural revival, and other initiatives. One would think that Hadiya names only add to the diversity of names in the country, the reflection of its multi linguistic and multicultural ethnic groups. I also understand I may have misspelled or made mistakes on the names above.
I am using examples to make a larger point. I am not at all innocent of this offense.If you haven't got an account with the bookmaker offering the highest odds, simple click on the sign up offer listed, open an account and grab yourself a free bet. MORE FREE BETS HERE We also have a football acca tips builder tool which looks at what our top football tipsters are predicting. These expert football tips can then be used to build a customisable acca for tonights games or for the weekend.
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One of our top tipsters has written a useful article detailing The 5 most useful sites for football betting. Our specialized team of experts will offer you tips on bringing home a few coins. The idea is: a constant and durable gain. The above table displays computer picks based off the last 100 games played in the NFL. To win represents the record based on straight moneyline bets. Our computer generates expert consensus picks that can help you cover the spread for every game.
Humans are biased and their opinions color their decisions. This is why advanced stats have grown in popularity for fantasy leagues, pro sports teams, agents, and even the general stats geek. And it's why NFL computer predictions are coming to be relied upon more than the screaming, angle-quoting handicapper. Picking NFL winners against the spread is one of the toughest tasks in sports betting.
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Of course, the output is only as good as the input. If the stats are accurate and significant handicapping measurements and if the formulas or algorithms are solid, then the resulting NFL computer selections can be reliable. Depending on how complex (does it include player data, weather variations, depth chart consideration. Of course, naysayers will always argue that a coin toss or some zoo animal will be able to do just as well, but those are true flukes. Computer picks have a basis in fact and stats.
If you find that perfect mix, you should be able to find edges and advantages that you can exploit at the sportsbook window each Sunday (or Monday). So bookmark the Odds Shark NFL computer picks page. Learn MoreSubscribe TodayThe handicapping, sports odds information contained on this website is for entertainment purposes only.
Please confirm the wagering regulations in your jurisdiction as they vary from state to state, province to province and country to country.Quite a few companies participate in content marketing - providing blogs and other articles educating and informing other firms interested in their products.Hadiya Zone Wogana Culture - በሆሳና ዞን የወጋና ባህል መቶ ከብቶችን ለማስቆጠር የሚደረግ አስደናቂ ባህላዊ ክዋኔ
They are beginning to learn that by working with microinfluencers in their niche they can widen the outreach of their content. As long as they fine tune their target audience and select their influencers well, B2B firms regularly use influencer marketing to attract more visitors to their websites and convert these to increased sales. In some ways, B2B businesses find influencer meeting to be a new form of networking - just this time they do not get to stand around a bar, telling their stories to anyone who will listen.
One change that may happen in 2017 is there being an increase in influencer-created content. Brands may not have as much control over such content as they do with their own posts, but they are beginning to recognize that influencers know their audience best, and have gained their reputations with these audiences for a good reason. As with much in business, many firms now realize that is often best to stand back from micromanaging and let the experts get on with what you are paying them to do.
One area that has held the rise of influencer marketing back has been the fuzziness of its metrics. There is no black and white clear cut way to measure the success of an influencer marketing campaign.
There is a push for there to be more reliability and consistency in the reporting of results. It is likely that the parties will move away from using traditional measures and focus their reporting on the engagement of content.
In one sense celebrities had an advantage over other influencers - nobody truly believed that celebrities were promoting a product out of the goodness of their heart, and thus nobody expected celebrities to be totally authentic. Niche micro-influencers, on the other hand, have gained their following because of their authenticity. If they try to push a message that clashes with the way their audience thinks, they are doing so at their peril.
A food blogger, who normally promotes the vegan lifestyle, would not match well with a brand like McDonald's, who are renowned for their meat-based burgers. Brands realize this, and 2017 will see more care taken as they try to build up suitable relationships. It also means that influencers who keep their special relationship with their audience untainted are likely to be seen as premium influencers who will be able, in turn, to charge premium rates and handpick the brands that they want to work with.
Social media is truly mobile nowadays. There are now more mobile internet connections than there are desktop ones, and indeed Google has already announced that their mobile search index will take priority over their desktop one at some stage this year.
In some cases, store displays change to match the consumers in their proximity. These messages will probably demonstrations to the consumer on how the products directly in front of them can provide value to them. Brands will most likely only trial this in 2017, but it will become more ubiquitous as time goes on. Until now, influencer marketing has always seemed to be a niche, almost experimental, form of marketing.
However, it has continually grown in importance over the last five years. We see no reason why that trend should suddenly reverse now. We are still clearly on the upwards rising stage of the influencer marketing life curve, with no sign of it peaking in the foreseeable future.
Each year Generations Y and Z age, increase their power and building their incomes. These generations will participate in influencer marketing (albeit they may not always be aware of it) throughout 2017. Their rise is balanced by the decline of the baby boomers, with their traditional way of doing things.
Most of the other trends we have referred to here will all lead to increased levels of influencer marketing this year. We have predicted more B2B marketing, further active micro-influencers, who will receive a relatively standard rate of payment, and increased agency involvement. We expect more standardized metrics will come into play.
All of these changes will add up to influencer marketing becoming part of the mainstream, and it will scale up to levels previously unheard of. Predictions for Influencer Marketing in 2017 Under the Influence Reading Time: 9 minutes 552ShareTweet1. Micro-influencers will have More Influence than Celebrities2.
There will be More Paid Influencers3. More Agencies Will Include Influencer Marketing in Their Offerings4. More B2B Companies Will Participate in Influencer Marketing6.